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The Difference Between Gasoline And Hydrogen Engines

Engineering Explained
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How hydrogen combustion engines work, versus gasoline engines. Hydrogen combustion engines can be more efficient and with better emissions versus gas engines, due to the fuel differences of H2.

This video will look at eight major differences between gasoline and hydrogen fuels used in internal combustion engines. This includes the combustion reaction and byproducts, air fuel ratio, ignition energy, flame velocity, auto-ignition temperature, diffusivity, quenching distance, and density. These properties result in drastic differences between using the two fuels, though both can easily be adopted and used in traditional otto-cycle piston cylinder engines, often with little modification to the existing engine hardware. Are hydrogen engines the future of internal combustion? Let's find out!

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Dec 19, 2018

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Comments 3 031
Mathew Fardella
Mathew Fardella 2 days ago
Nice , explanation, just 1 question , is it true or not , if you start with super purified water to extract your Hydrogen, you will not produce nitrogen oxide gas , after combustion ??? Also I suggest to use only 2 colours on white board , red for petrol, and blue for Hydrogen, easier to follow, Cheers
rip454vanwinkel
rip454vanwinkel 3 days ago
I really like how all the pro's and con's are presented in just the facts. I wish the news was like this.
Peter Doe
Peter Doe 7 days ago
WOW! Great job! We need to tell this to our politicians now, in 2021. Who are all the way into e-cars.
Garry Dunkley
Garry Dunkley 8 days ago
Generate the hydrogen from water as you go !
MrVaticanRag
MrVaticanRag 10 days ago
How about a Hydrogen rotary/wankle for recharging hybrid batteries in heavy construction equipment, long haul trucks and aircraft?🥝🥝🙏
André Luiz
André Luiz 11 days ago
How about hho feeding the engine? Those hho generators?
Norm Owl
Norm Owl 12 days ago
Interesting... thanks
Come fly with me!
Come fly with me! 12 days ago
Have you actually made the engine and tested it or is it all theory. Petrol companies wouldn't want this to be a reality so very little being pumped into R&D.
Joshua Gomez
Joshua Gomez 13 days ago
Hmm I'm thinking rotary engine.. Made like a super diesel with super high compression, and spark plugs. The lack of carbon would probably make the difference and it would probably lend itself to the general charictaristics.. CMon mazda.. u can do it.
Joshua Gomez
Joshua Gomez 13 days ago
lol Skyactivex rotary
Joshua Gomez
Joshua Gomez 13 days ago
Imagine if you could use the fuel as a lubricant too, and its waste comes back through and grabs the hydrogen for combustion again.
Joshua Gomez
Joshua Gomez 13 days ago
The trick to the tank is to find something dense you can knock hydrogen molecules off of for fuel. Or find some lubricating fluid that is clean to use as a carrier molecule.
Noe F
Noe F 15 days ago
Has the hydrogen metal embrittlement problem been solved?
William
William 16 days ago
You should to discuss the difference between liquid H2 vs compressed gas H2, especially when talking about rockets.
Vezperado
Vezperado 16 days ago
So making a rotary powered H2 track car would be really silly is what I am getting based on the 8th point.
Mark Buehler
Mark Buehler 17 days ago
You are a great educator. Thanks for your efforts.
farra smit
farra smit 18 days ago
Video should be made, to explain how hydrogen is the same as gasoline. They're very expensive. They're both bad for the environment, as they are about 20% efficient. They both require expensive, service requiring engines. The hydrogen vehicle hoax, aims to extend legacy ICE vehicle production into the foreseeable future.
Thomas Musso
Thomas Musso 21 day ago
Very well explained .. thank you. Back in the 60's, my Uncle Stan, a consummate Popular Mechanics Reader (I too, loved going through his Mags) even then, predicted that Hydrogen would one day become the Fuel of Choice. Given the current Situation and the push for 'Cleaner Energy' (however misdirected it may appear at times), our Scientists and Engineers are being forced to 'adapt'. Mankind thrives on Adversity and it's associated Challenges and it is under such Conditions that we become the most Inventive. Interesting times ahead ..
Lee Stuart
Lee Stuart 22 days ago
One thing you did not say is that gasoline is hydrogen. Huh? Hydro-carbon. What do you think the Hydro part is? Does the carbon burn? Not really. So you are left with Hydrogen, the carbon is just a way to store Hydrogen. So engines run on H already. Carbon slows down combustion so timing must be retarded. Pure Hydrogen burns very fast and clean. So carbon is a storage medium, but guess what, water is also a Hydrogen storage medium and it does not require huge refineries to extract the energy.
mepe75
mepe75 22 days ago
Perfekt!
Marc Isaacs
Marc Isaacs 23 days ago
How much h is in 1cc of h20?
Andrew Howard
Andrew Howard 24 days ago
Perhaps Lead could be added to prevent 'knock' (pre-ignition), or for gasoline engines plants be somehow adapted to absorb CO2.
J DENTON
J DENTON 24 days ago
AIR FUEL RATIO IS INCORRECT. 18 / 14 TO 1 WHATEVER. NO WAY HOZAY. 5 LITER ENGINE 1 COMPLETE STROKE IS ABOUT 1.3 GALLONS. 700 RPM IDLE, ZERO VACUUM DUE TO TAPPING THE GAS. ZERO VACUUM IS AN IDICATOR OF VERY HIGH VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY. SO 1040 GALLONS OF AIR IS PUMPED IN 1 MINUTE AT 800 RPM DUE TO YOU TAPPING THE GAS OFF OF IDLE OF 700. SO CALL IT 14 TO 1 RATIO. WHICH IS COMMAN ON A MODERN CAR. AND THAT EQUALS TO ABOUT 74 GALLONS OF GAS. LMAO!!!!!. EVEN THOUGH VOLUMETRIC EFFIENCY IS NOT PRIME, CALL IT BOOSTED BY ?, SO THAT GOES TO EVEN HIGHER VOLUME OF AIR THAN ENGINE DISPLACMENT. THE RATIO NUMBERS MAKT NO SENSE. 14 TO 1 IS 14 TO 1. LIKE 14 GALLONS OF WATER TO ONE GALLON OF MILK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. GOT IT. ITS MORE LIKE 1400000 GALLONS OF AIR TO ONE GAL OF GAS. DON'T REALLY KNOW BUT GOT THE POINT!!!.
David Worthington
David Worthington 24 days ago
Think your science is wrong, the hydrogen will only react with the nitrogen when rhere is not enough oxygen, hence at stioc complete combustion
malawidick
malawidick 24 days ago
I wouldn't want to crash a hydrogen propelled car all that would be left is your DNA
Eddie Muldoon
Eddie Muldoon 25 days ago
You can fix that by putting steel sleeves in the cylinder.
Eddie Muldoon
Eddie Muldoon 25 days ago
Question, Would the hydrogen have to be turned into a vapor, Or would it have to enter the cylinder in a liquid state?
Bill Richard
Bill Richard 26 days ago
Science is fun when explained properly. Thank you.
Nigel Weir
Nigel Weir 26 days ago
Other difference is gasoline engines days are numbered , hydrogen will never have its day in engines
Denis Kearney
Denis Kearney 26 days ago
The USA has great scientists and teachers. How did you end up with Trump, Biden and Hillary Clinton at the top of the heap?
Tony Keast
Tony Keast 27 days ago
JCB are all over HC. They have an ex lotus engine genius who kicks ass... go watch the vids I saw, they really restored my faith that there is space for petrol heads in the future. We might just need to change our name... 'Harry's garage JCB' will get you 2 great vids if you do a RUvid search. Filmed at JCB HQ. All about agricultural and construction vehicles obv, but you'll be amazed to see them working and every detail well explained. Also the politics and anti EV discussed brilliantly. This video was awesome btw. Love this channel.
pachy444
pachy444 28 days ago
Great video 👌 Although there's a big misunderstanding that the Hydrogen cars available currently use Hydrogen in that way, they don't, mainly because the amount of Hydrogen you would need to carry on board, it's also not a very efficient way to use it. Far better is to use Hydrogen in a fuel cell (battery) to power an Electric Car like the Hydrogen cars currently available.
Elisabeth terBorg
Elisabeth terBorg 29 days ago
Would adblue help the NOX?
Cameron murie
Cameron murie Month ago
JCB have developed an engine that eliminates NoX
mxbishop
mxbishop Month ago
I think I'll write a paper about the history of energy development by the humans living on planet Earth. I've already decided the chapter on hydrocarbons will be called: Carbon Joy.
Alan Shepherd
Alan Shepherd Month ago
Jeeze, he really needs to slow his delivery down!!😂😂 Very interesting though!!!😁🇬🇧
Tony290248
Tony290248 Month ago
Thank you so much for this vid. Like many people I thought the only output from hydrogen fuel was water. I had no idea that when the stoichiometric ratio approaches that of petrol (gas) ie 1:34 that nox is produced as well. Not a problem because it can be neutralised with urea, but lets hope they build one better than the current Bosch offering installed in my MB. It keeps failing and costs thousands of dollars to keep fixing it!!!!! I learnt more about this subject in 14 mins than in my preceding 73 years - well done indeed.
steelydanZ
steelydanZ Month ago
Hydrogen should of been blue, however excellent video.
Jason White
Jason White Month ago
how about a hybrid vehicle were the Hydrogen engine turns a powerfull generator that drives the whells via ewlectric motors .. as well as providing the electric nesseccary to make the hydrogen as its needed from H2o. .. engine is direct injected with the hydragen and oxygen .. eliminating intake valves and nox by not pulling in nitrogen .. energy denisity is in the form of H2o.. and the exhaust could even pass through H2o storage so it collects some or most of the H2o Exhausted.. when the Fuel is Water Efficency numbers matter so much less. ..
Yeoman Trader
Yeoman Trader Month ago
The first square is good and all, but what's difference in NO2 volume? 1:100 or 100:1...big and important difference.
Xpeng Fangirl
Xpeng Fangirl Month ago
good job, notice you cover emerging stuff, did you get the Spyros Panopoulos update? Maybe you need to start looking at SP Automotive, unknown firm launching next gen tech, will be mainstream media soon, the hydrogen fuel cell andiaplasis, your logo is also similar
ferstuck37
ferstuck37 Month ago
Wonderful! now tell how I get hydrogen gas, oh you have to generate it, So that takes electricity which will come from coal or air or sun. Lovely equations what about natural gas.
John W
John W Month ago
A good video for gasoline v Hydrogen now do one for Diesel V Hydrogen - I think you will be less impressed with the energy density/efficiency.
kolluru bharathsimha
Instead of using air y cant we use oxygen tanks fir oxygen may be we can reduce the nox emissions
Ramon Ching
Ramon Ching Month ago
Here is head scratcher for you. Where are you going to get the oil for your engine?
Lloyd Sumpter
Lloyd Sumpter Month ago
One thing he doesn't address (except perhaps in the volume thing...?) is the lower energy of H2 combustion. Burning H2 does not produce nearly as much energy as burning a hydrocarbon such as gasoline (the C + O2 -> CO2 produces more energy than H2 + O -> H2O). Also, I'd like to see a comparison between H2 and diesel, which has even more energy and is used in compression ignition, and because of it's wide combustion ratio, you can "throttle" the engine just by adjusting the amount of fuel injected and leave the air alone.
Gareth Judd
Gareth Judd Month ago
JCB here in the UK are using existing common rail diesel engines fitted with just high-pressure hydrogen tanks that can run for 8 hours. No billions wasted in the development of fuel cell engines. Simply fill up the same way as if using LPG. Fully electric cars aren't practical when your car is parked outside on the street as the majority of the population in cities are. Hydrogen is the future.
Ed M
Ed M Month ago
Nice presentation, love dealing with the fundamentals. So how about hydrogen's traits as a turbine fuel? Since long-haul aviation is a big carbon emitter, and seems destined to be one of the last holdouts that just won't be viable without a combustion fuel in liquid (er, slush) form.
Steve Walsh-Balshaw
Either is wayyyy better than crappie ev's which despite the hype are not environmentally friendly
David Willard
David Willard Month ago
So WHAT ! DO ! YOU ! THINK ! OF !! STANLEY !! MAYHER !! THEN !!??
Not Available
Not Available Month ago
Is it possible to calculate how much NOx from optimal hydro combustion compared to hydrocarbon fuels?
Little Fishy
Little Fishy Month ago
World class presentation. Enjoyed, thanks
Andrew Robinson
Andrew Robinson Month ago
HYDROgen being the gas, GASoline being the liquid (at room temp) 🤔
Quo Vadis
Quo Vadis Month ago
What happens if you crash causing the oversized hydrogen tank to rupture, splashing liquid hydrogen all over the place...?
william burgess
william burgess Month ago
Very understandable, thank you.
Jonathan Colling
Can you compress hydrogen and store it in smaller containers like lpg ? If so it would take up less space and you could fit smaller tanks to cars
Roger Smith
Roger Smith Month ago
The term air you keep referring to is nitrogen with a oxygen content plus other gasses in a small amount. As you will be aware oxygen is the oxider to release the heat from the fuel used. Maybe it would be good to explain how nitrogen is what makes engines work and creates cylinder pressure. The oxygen oxidizing the fuel heats the nitrogen which does the bulk of the work. If nitrogen was removed from the intake the engine would have very little power and it would barely run. Maybe the white board was to small to explain the the process how engines work. Nitrogen heated is the T1 T2 event. Hydrocarbon and oxygen is the flash in the pan that causes rapid expansion of nitrogen. Good effort and a lot of work in your presentation. Cheers.
Howard Lake
Howard Lake Month ago
Absolutely brilliant. So many points, so well explained. One question. The NOx, is it higher than a Diesel engine? Oh, 2 questions! Is it possible to collect the NOx, in a device such as a catalytic converter, or diesel particulate filter? Thanks 😀
TransitBiker
TransitBiker Month ago
Yes, you CAN use hydrogen as a fuel this way, but we SHOULD NOT be doing it this way, because it will not stop oil & gas extraction, and the solar/wind etc energy needed to create and store it is very high. Hydrogen is a dead end.
Charlie t
Charlie t Month ago
In England JCB have developed a Hydrogen engine which works without the problems you think they will have, it's running and it works, so watch it
Thomas Taylor
Thomas Taylor Month ago
How does hydrogen compare to diesel for transport. What about on board compression like JCB are trying with there gen sets and experimental fastrac
Pat Diggins
Pat Diggins Month ago
J.C.B have started production of hydrogen engine's for all their plant and agricultural sector's.
punk gaitan
punk gaitan Month ago
Any opinions on making a motorcycle into a hydrogen bike with a hydogen cell.
MartinJG100
MartinJG100 Month ago
But what about the high cost of producing hydrogen?
DEEPWORKS ƊΞΞǷШΘЯƘƧ
But what about liquid hydrogen ? In some filling stations, you can have in situ hydrogen production by electrolyzing water and using graphene solar panels and liquefaction by using Claude's Cycle. And we can make some hydrogen tanks built like thermos bottles.
Alistair Murray
Alistair Murray Month ago
Do i still get a clean burn if i use just oxygen and hydrogen direct from hydrolysis? Do the nasty NOx 's occur because of nitrogen in the air?
Jan Borkovec
Jan Borkovec Month ago
You shouldn't have missed out on, hydrogen engines could have been used for decades with ease. But they were not cuzzzzz hydrogen.
Arafat Anzir
Arafat Anzir Month ago
Nice explanation.
Alberto Cordova
Alberto Cordova Month ago
Thank you so much for your very clear explanation.
Torronto Man
Torronto Man Month ago
beautiful explained
Ross
Ross Month ago
Point 8 goes away when you inject the oxygen that is separated in the hydrogen generation process.
Mátyás Lember
Mátyás Lember Month ago
Great video with actual facts. Showing both sides of the story.Thank you
DOOTNOOT -Menkalinan-
I can't wait for the day were people are retrofitting their cars cyberpunk style to to convert their old gas engines to run on Hydrogen. Yea it'd be a pretty invasive huge modification, but it'd be really neat.
Pradeep Ballagere
Pradeep Ballagere 2 months ago
Too much lecturing. Consider making short videos..
N3STRo
N3STRo 2 months ago
Imagine if F1 goes to hydrogen powered V10s! This could save the combustion engine.. Hopefully at least for racing.. I think everyone is jumping the gun with electric motors. Can you imagine when they go full electric? How boring would that racing be..? I probably wouldn't even watch it.... Honestly I was mad when f1 went to the small hybrid v6..I was even mad when they downsized to V8s from the V10s.. I think most people feel this way.. Except the new global warming freakout generation
john mcinnis
john mcinnis 2 months ago
A reciprocating ice engine is bound to fail. A rotating engines such as a quasi turbine would be far superior for use with hydrogen as it constantly moves away from the flame
newton kline
newton kline 2 months ago
If you burn hydrogen in an engine you're going to get water as a exhaust and you're going to dilute the oil with water.
Johnston Blackhorse
Johnston Blackhorse 2 months ago
One of the questions I wanted to be answered at the beginning is why NOx is bad? Had to look it up. High levels of NOx emissions in the atmosphere can create acid rain. Oof!
MrPryze
MrPryze 2 months ago
So tldr hydrogen better but goes boom boom easier
altgenesis
altgenesis 2 months ago
gasoline engines are less dangerous because it is in a liquid state at normal temperatures.
altgenesis
altgenesis 2 months ago
YOu would need liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks. No air needed. However it's more efficient to just pour the fuel into a chamber like in a rocket. The tight tolerances needed in a piston engine would be impossible. You would get backfires when the fuel leaked past the cylinder walls and piston. An HHO torch requires a spark arrester to prevent a very dangerous backfire from HHO gas escaping backwards up the fuel line. An engine would be a nightmare.
Axolotl
Axolotl 2 months ago
anyone intersted in developing a hydrogen engine reply to this comment. I have an idea, I just need to test how effecient it is and its climate impact compared to gas
Woodzy fox
Woodzy fox 2 months ago
What about HHO gas? two parts H and 1 part o2 how would thateffect
Loud Lightning
Loud Lightning 2 months ago
Thank you
Bart Nettle
Bart Nettle 2 months ago
Show me how hydrogen and oxygen under pressure burnt produces nitrous oxide. Where is the nitgrogen incorporated and how much? Also what happens if you introduce carbon?
Nonya Businesss
Nonya Businesss 2 months ago
🔑He's not even considering gasoline VAPORS for stoichiometric ratio. 💥 Pfft! 💌 More like 73.5/1 not 14.7/1 for LIQUID FUELS. 🔓💰✔👍🙏🎯💲📈♻🌠
Joe Yee
Joe Yee 3 months ago
What does "running lean" means
misturchips
misturchips 3 months ago
9:26 is that a code of some sort on your left sleeve?
Beaux Guidry
Beaux Guidry 3 months ago
7:12. He just canceled #2 with #5. Before anyone comments, messy I know.
Beaux Guidry
Beaux Guidry 3 months ago
Please tell me if Hydrogen is impossible to use as a fuel source, how did BWM have a working prototype in '86? Also, he is talking about using a gas as a fuel source. I thought there was already a modified type of engine that that does this with (CNG) Compressed Natural Gas?
mafarmerga
mafarmerga 3 months ago
I don't get it. Isn't it way more efficient to use the hydrogen in a fuel cell/electric motor? Isn't a ton of energy lost as heat when you burn hydrogen? Same old problem as a petrol ICE.
Jeff Williams
Jeff Williams 3 months ago
Difference? The cost and energy needed to produce the fuel and the infrastructure to distribute the fuel.
johnnieisrotten
johnnieisrotten 3 months ago
Considering most nitrogen is produced from natural gas, we are still using fossil fuels. If you produce it through electrolysis of water then you are using up another very valuable natural resource, not to mention the cost of desalinating the water. Unless of course you want to use fresh water, because we have plenty of that, just ask all the drought stricken areas of the world.
John Kirk
John Kirk 3 months ago
So, if this technology requires a large engine, how does this support the idea that by switching to hydrogen fuel we are actually lessening our carbon footprint? Anyone? I'd like to start a discussion...
Daryl15skydiver
Daryl15skydiver 3 months ago
Nice to have people and good engineers like you to explain this as clearly as you did to the normal people, because back in 2006, i was nearly 16 old, i made as project, for a physics science expo, a hydrogen combustion engine, everyone thought i was crazy, and more rational scientists thought i wasn't but banned my project, because, it was estimated as too dangerous... I already calculated and explained everything, and the results were just as you said... I was sad as f*ck After their décision...
Daryl15skydiver
Daryl15skydiver 3 months ago
Will definitely share your video with Friends involved and sustained me in this project and those basterds who said and thought i was crazy... By the way thanks for your video, nice one as usual
R.W. :Peterson
R.W. :Peterson 3 months ago
Stan Meyer FTW. Hydrogen tanks are for fools.
john harris
john harris 3 months ago
Damn! Where's my degree and you forgot to tell me where to send tuition!
KazikLombax
KazikLombax 3 months ago
I like how you're using skyactiv pistons in your thumbnail.
Thunderstormworld
Thunderstormworld 3 months ago
One good question is you talk about Mazda's Sky Active motor that run so lean yet in the real world as soon as that engine is put into a vehicle it gives the same fuel consumption as the average of other engines and there is other Manufacturers that beats Mazda's Sky Active fuel consumption, to me I just think that Mazda is doing the eco cheat that VW is doing to lure customers into buying their vehicles. Any engine can be so set up in the lab to be fuel efficient but put that engine in a vehicle and then that so efficient engine turns out to be average.
Thunderstormworld
Thunderstormworld 3 months ago
How will a combination of Gasoline and hydrogen mixture work in a engine?
BRIAN STURE
BRIAN STURE 3 months ago
The problem with the air-breathing engines is just that it has to breathe and that takes energy as many other parts of the engine absorb energy to operate. No matter what fuel you use it has to be delivered it can't be transported done a wire at the speed of light. Where is the advantage of using a very volatile fuel like hydrogen in a piston engine. So many mechanical parts reducing efficiency. Torque is still very low as power is wasted as heat noise and lots of friction. It's a waste of time and money using hydrogen to fuel a piston engine being very expensive and only seen as an advantage to those who want to cling to a piston engine that makes lots of noise and still needs loads of oil to make it work. No matter how these engineers try and cling to this old technology sooner or later they will realise it is doomed. You can't turn a sow's ear into a silk purse.
Frank Pham
Frank Pham 3 months ago
Toyota just did the unthinkable; a Corolla with a HCE.
David Willard
David Willard Month ago
I'm STILL ! Waiting !! For !! The ! CELICA ! XT !! and LT ! Models ! To be in The SHOWROOM !!
Alex B
Alex B 3 months ago
Fabulous. It can clean the outlet valves while it's at it 😁
Joseph Bohan
Joseph Bohan 3 months ago
Called exhaust valves in the United States .
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